How do Hackers Hack your Passwords?

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Many of you might have been victims of your email accounts being hacked, or your Facebook password not working. This maybe because your password might have been hacked by the Hackers.
One way to keep your self secure is by knowing how do hackers hack password and what all methods and software’s they generally use. By knowing how hackers can get into your account, you will be in better situation to understand what are the possible ways you can lose your account information and passwords & you can protect yourself from getting hacked next time.

There are some common technique which hackers uses to hack passwords. One of them is phishing pages, where a hacker will send a login page of Gmail or Facebook and it will look exactly the same as real Facebook login page. Most of the time they use Social engineering skills like, they will send message saying “This person has posted your bad picture on Facebook, click here to check your photo”, and once you click on the link, you will be taken to login page, as soon as you enter your password, it will be sent to hacker, and your page will reload to take you to the real page. Most of the time, victim don’t even realize his password is gone.
1. Keyloggers
This is one of the basic tool used for getting your passwords. Keylogger resides in your system memory and runs at every startup. These keyloggers log all the keystrokes you type. A log is created and then it is sent to the Hacker. Most famous keylogger is the Ardamax Keylogger. It can be customized so that it cannot be shown in “Processes” (Windows Task Manager).
I suggest you to start using Online virtual Keyboard when typing password for sensitive sites like your bank account and Paypal account.
2. RAT
RAT stands for Remote Administration Tool. With RAT, a hacker can connect to your PC, without your knowledge. He can see what is going on the screen, what you are currently doing, which sites you surf. It also has the built-in functionality of keylogger.
Hacker can copy files from your Hard disk to his computer, and all this without your knowledge. A good example of RAT is Poison Ivy. It can be customized to connect to your PC on a particular port number specified while creating the RAT.
3. Trojan Horses
Now these are the most common type of malwares. Trojans spread through warez sites mostly. All of you want free softwares. Right? Beware though! When you download from warez sites, all the keygens and patches and even the original trial programs are trojaned. This means you will get the software for free. But your computer will be affected with a trojan horse.
When you run the patch/keygen, you’ll get the desired output, but in background, your system gets infected with the trojan. Turkojan is a famous Trojan horse. A trojan is much more superior to keyloggers and RATs. It provides much more functions, so that a Hacker has more access to your PC.
There are many other ways which hacker usually uses, for example if you are connected to internet on a LAN, which uses the same router , a hacker can use any packet sniffer and base decoder to read all sensitive data being transmitted from your computer. Cain and Abel is one such sniffer and there are many more.
That’s one reason why I always suggest to enable secure browsing where ever possible. Most of sites like Facebook gives an option to use https login, which encrypts your data and even hacker uses sniffer to capture data, decoding password with those data will not be easy. Brute forcing is another common method, but with technology advancement, most of Email and Web login forms, comes with handling such attack.

How to protect yourself from hacking:

  • Install a good licensed anti-virus. I suggest you go for Kaspersky. It’s the best anti-virus out there.
  • Always have your Windows Firewall turned on.
  • Never ever trust warez sites. There is a lot of malware flowing out there.
  • Don’t run .exe programs given by anyone. Trust only yourself.
  • Never auto-play a pen drive. By this, malware automatically gets installed on your PC.
  • Don’t run attachments from emails.
  • If you want to run .exe files safely, run them sandboxed. A free application Sandboxie is available for this purpose.
  • If you feel you’re infected, format your PC immediately. No anti-virus can remove a Trojan horse from your PC. It’s very difficult to remove a trojan from an infected PC.

Well, to be safe, you have to take all preventive method and make sure you enable all security features offered by web app you are using. I hope this article will help you to understand how do hackers hack and you can take all preventive measures to keep your password safe. If you find this article useful, don’t forget to share it on Google plus and Facebook for more social awareness. Hackers hack people passwords for many reasons, some of them are just showing their skills and some of them hack for profits. Many of them will use your Email account to send spam links to your contact list or use your Facebook account to send spam application link. Though, the major problem comes when hackers get hold of your private and sensitive data and black-mail starts. Like I mentioned above, Similarly, there are many other methods which I have listed below are being used by hackers to hack anyone password or Email access.How do Hackers get Passwords?

 
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How to detect Malicious code in nulled or Free WordPress Themes and Plugins.

Wordpress-unwanted-code

Apart from Official WordPress repository there are hundreds and thousands of websites which provides free WordPress themes and Plugins but the problem is you can not trust them always.

Yes, Most of them add a malicious code to themes and plugins which is not too easy for you to find out.

Before learning about the cure lets discuss about the cause.

Here  is why they add their custom codes

  • To get backlink from your blog unknowingly
  • To get access to your blog
  • To redirect your blog to spam links
  • To add their advertisements and banners.
  • or to simply get your website down

Not only free themes and plugins also the premium nulled plugins and themes that you have download from Warez and torrents may also infected by these malicious codes.

My Confessions

Did  you wonder what triggered me write this article ?

Yes, I too fell prey to these free plugins.Few days back, I was desperate to download a very famous nulled plugin from warez and after installing it in my blog I got to know that the plugin was infected and it redirects my blog to a spam blog.

I immediately disabled the plugin and checked for the code that caused the redirection in plugin files. After an hour I found the code and immediately removed it [ I don’t use that plugin now ]

This incident taught me very important thing.

Never trust nulled WordPress plugins and themes

However many of you might want to use those nulled or free plugins and themes for God’s Sake, If you are one of them then read the remaining article

Detecting Malicious codes

After downloading the plugin or theme,The first thing you should do is to check for virus,trojans and other worms that you may not like it.

Check for Virus and Trojans

Go to VirusTotal.com and upload the zip file to check for virus.

If your file is infected you will get a red signal and if not then you can move on to next step.

VirusTotal Scan result

VirusTotal Scan result

Check for unwanted codes in Plugins

Now lets check for unwanted codes in plugins using another WordPress plugin called Exploit Scanner,which can be securely downloaded from WordPress website.

After installing it go to Dashboard >> Tools >> Exploit Scanner and run the scan.It will take some time to complete the scan and the time depends on number of plugins you have installed.

After the scan you can see a list of codes that are suspected.You can use the browser search function to find the plugins that you installed from outside WordPress repository.

Exploit Scanner

Exploit Scanner

[mybox]Note : This plugin will also scan themes but you might to be interested to try the tip that I am about to give next.[/mybox]

Check for Theme authenticity

Adding a backlink in a free theme is very common technique but you can easily find those exploited themes by the plugin called Theme Authenticity Checker (TAC).

Install the plugin and go to Dashboard >> Appearance >> TAC

You can see the list of themes installed with their authenticity result.It will give a warning if any encrypted links are found in a theme.

Theme Authenticity Checker

Theme Authenticity Checker

Security is in your hands

Its very rare to get hacked unless,We make mistake.So,security is in your hand : Either Act wisely or get fooled easily.

 
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5 Things to Remember When You are Learning to Code

Today, we are going to talk about those 5 things which you need to remember while you are still learning programming.

All right, let’s get started!

5 Things to Remember when You are Learning to Code:-

Learning to program is challenging. Aside from choosing a language or setting up a development environment that you know nothing about, there are thousands of articles and tutorials out there that quite simply will make you feel dumb, demotivate you or make you think that everything you have learnt so far was a waste of time and that you’ve been doing everything wrong.

1. Always remember you are on The Internet:- 

You should not believe all the articles or news you read is legit or that the photos you see aren’t Photoshopped. So don’t take everything that you read literally. Just because it’s about programming does not mean it’s reliable or correct. It was written by a person, and people make mistakes and are biased.

2. Focus on your code returning the correct result first, rather than cleaning the code:-

You’ll come across a lot of articles that start something like “You should write clean code, you are doing it wrong”. The vast majority of these are just opinions. Focus on your code returning the correct result first, and then focus on cleaning the code. Writing code that works is much better than Writing code by Following Good Programming Practices that doesn’t work.

bad code
You can write a simple function that returns the same result in almost any language in a hundred different ways; if their way of doing it is so “right”, what makes the other ninety-nine wrong? And what’re they grading it by — readability? Execution time? It’s all relative to what you need when you code.
Bad Naming Conventions, Indentation and Documentation are more likely to produce “bad” code than the method you choose for a loop.

3. Programmers have a knack of making other people feel dumb:-

Two common concepts in programming are obfuscation (obscuring of intended meaning in communication, making the message confusing, wilfully ambiguous, or harder to understand) and abstraction, and for some reason this seems to carry through to a lot of stuff that programmers write about.
They tend to use very large words, or terms that only relate to the field of programming when they’re writing. If you have to Google a word fifteen times while reading an article, keep in mind you’re not dumb. On the contrary, the writer most likely wanted to you to think he was really clever and impress you.
What he didn’t realise is that when reading an article with big words, people in general tend to think the writer is normal and they are dumb.
Learn to Code

4. There are no bad Programming Languages:- 

When you meet a fellow programmer, the first question they’re likely to ask you is:

“Which language do you code in?”

Your answer then generally forms their initial opinion of your expertise and skill level. I can’t express just how biased this is! There is a good chance that they’ve never even touched the language they’re judging you on, or that they can’t properly justify their opinion. All languages have strengths and weaknesses.

Learning to Program

Programming is a trade and a programming language is the same to a good programmer as a tool is to a mechanic. It is his choice to select the best tool from his box for the task at hand, and I’ve never heard anyone say, “Don’t ever use that spanner!”

5. Learning concepts, data structures, design patterns and theory is more important than knowing syntax:- 

Programming concepts are all relatively similar. If you know your stuff, you’ll be familiar with the term ‘Array’, you’ll know what it is, what built-in methods it’s likely to have, and can then look up the syntax for it in any language in a heartbeat.

All popular languages are based on programming theory, concepts and principles, and usually they try to build on and add to them. Knowing and understanding this allows you to transcend the limitations of a single programming language, and instead use the best tool for the job… even if you need to Google a little to get there.

 
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How do Hackers Look Like and What They Think?

How do Hackers Look Like and What They Think?

How do Hackers Look Like and What They Think?

EDUCATIONAL PROFILE: Almost all hackers finished college or reached that level by self-education. Self-educated hacker is  more respected in hackers community because you really need to have passion to become professional hacker. The most common areas in which people can engage in hack, with computers electrical engineering, physics, mathematics, linguistics and philosophy. However, as every developer is not necessarily the hackers, so hackers do not always have the skills of programming (I think they have to know programming)!

DRESS STYLE: Hackers are dressed simply, casually: jeans, T-shirt and shoes. T-shirts are usually with some humorous slogans. By 1990, they were distributed T-shirts with computer imagery, but as the hacker culture eventually developed their own symbols, today there are T-shirts with pictures of Penguin (trademark Linux) or daemon (BSD). A small number of hackers prefer hiking boots. After 1995, hackers are falling under the influence of punk, gothic and rave subculture. This was reflected in the wearing of black clothes. Hackers care more about comfort, functionality and ease of maintenance wardrobe. They don’t like business suits. Even if they wear it, be sure to break the conventionality with a humorous tie.

OTHER INTERESTS: Hobbies that hackers exercise are widespread. These are primarily science fiction, music, medievalism, chess, war games and intellectual games of all types, logical puzzles and other areas that are closely related to hacking or that include linguistics and acting.

THINGS HACKERS AVOID: On this list are all Microsoft products, Smurfs and all forms of striking beauty. THEY HATE bureaucracy and stupid people, do not like to listen to soft music, or to watch television, except for cartoons and science fiction films. THEY HATE dishonesty, incompetence and boredom. From programming languages avoid COBOL and BASIC, as well as programs whose appearance is based on the text (not the icons).

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SPORT: The largest number of hackers are generally not engaged in physical activities. Some of them practice it, but interest in the sport is not that big. Avoid team sports. Hacker sports are always individual, including concentration and motor skills: cycling, auto racing, skating, sailing, hiking, gliding … (I actually like to play football, but hate to watch it and I don’t have any favorite team).

Most hackers consume cigarettes and alcohol. In 1995, there was a trend among Linux hackers to drink exotic beers, influenced by Linus Torvalds who like Guinness. The limited use of cannabis, LSD, nitrus oxide used to be more accepted than in mass culture. On the other hand, the use of opioids is rare because hackers do not want to use a drug that blunts them. Most hackers use a coffee and / or sugar (ENERGY DRINKS, mmm 😉 ) in order to stay up all night during the hacking.

 
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How to upgrade your ordinary router with functionality of a high cost one with Tomato firmware

router

Here is how to install Tomato firmware on your cheap Wi-Fi router to attain functionality of a high cost router.

What if you could simply enhance your router’s functionalities just by some software alteration. well, Few people understand why some routers cost $15 and some hundreds of dollars.

There are hardware differences and… software differences.

Using a custom firmware (if supported by the router) can give you options/features available on much more expensive hardware.

Such a firmware is Tomato USB. Its an open source firmware for Broadcomm based routers.

The first step is to see if your router is supported by Tomato, so please check Shibby Tomato Builds. If it is, get the newest version and flash it on the administration interface.

Usually, there are some flavors: AIO (All in One) or VPN (few features, smaller size, perfect for most users).

If it cannot be flashed through Web interface (like Asus RT-N53), you must use the emergency procedure (see router documentation) to upload the custom firmware to the router.

After you install and set up all the usual settings on Tomato (WIFI, LAN etc.), you can go further, and with some work, you can install many programs, for example a webserver with PHP support or Transmission Torrent client (the router must have USB ports).

Different routers have different flash memory sizes. Inside the flash reside the firmware and settings. Depending on the flash size and firmware size (VPN or AIO), some unused space might still remain, so you can create a JFFS partition to install software. This is critical for routers without USB or if you do not want to use a USB drive. If you do want to use a USB drive, read here how to create a partition, and after you create it, continue this tutorial from Step 3.

Okay lets start.
Step 1: Create a JFFS partition.
Go to Administration – JFFS – Enable – Format Erase

In the text box paste:

mount -o bind /jffs /opt

Wait a few minutes, and if you do not get any message, reboot the router.

Step 2:
Go to Administration – Admin Access and modify the default port settings for router administration (ex: 8082).
This will allow you to access your router on specified port.

http://ip_router:8082
default: http://192.168.1.1:8082

Step 3:
3. Access the router on SSH using Putty (Windows) or Terminal (Mac).

On Mac, the command is:

ssh -l root IP

Username must be root and the password of the admin user.

Step 4:
Install Optware package manager by using the following code.

cd /tmp

wget http://tomatousb.org/local–files/tut:optware-installation/optware-install.sh -O – | tr -d ‘\r’ > /tmp/optware-install.sh

chmod 755 optware-install.sh

sh optware-install.sh

Note that it may take time depending on your internet speed and your router’s processing power.

Step 5:
Install nano (text editor), lighttpd (webserver), and PHP

ipkg install nano
ipkg install lighttpd
ipkg install php-fcgi

Step 6: Edit the lighttpd configuration file.

nano /opt/etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf

and add this:

server.event-handler =”poll”

Modify the default running port of the webserver (default is 8081).

server.port = 80

Save everything and close nano.

Step 7:
Restart the webserver.

/opt/etc/init.d/S80lighttpd restart

Now you can put files and scripts in /opt/share/www/

If you want your webserver to be accessible from WAN, you need to add those lines to the Firewall script (Administration – Scripts – Firewall):

iptables -t filter -A INPUT -p tcp –dport 80 -j ACCEPT
iptables -t filter -A INPUT -p tcp –dport 443 -j ACCEPT

Its done! now enjoy the features on your budget router. Do post your queries or suggestions in the comments.

 
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The 25 Most Popular Passwords of 2015: We’re All Such Idiots

The 25 Most Popular Passwords of 2015: We’re All Such Idiots

passwords

The 25 Most Popular Passwords of 2015

It’s 2016 and you may have thought we’d all be a little older and wiser than this time last year. But as you read this list of 2015’s most popular passwords, you will shake your head, mumble unmentionables and reach the firm conclusion that, no, we are in fact all still complete and utter morons.

Every year, SplashData complies a list of the millions of stolen passwords made public throughout the last twelve months, then sorts them in order of popularity. This year the results, based on a total of over 2 million leaked passwords, are not the list of random alpha-numeric characters you might hope for. Rather, they’re a lesson in exactly how not to choose a password.

Yes, “123456″ and “password” remain bewilderingly popular.

But anyway, without further ado, here’s the list, direct from Splash Data. Brace yourselves.

1. 123456 (Unchanged)

2. password (Unchanged)

3. 12345678 (Up 1)

4. qwerty (Up 1)

5. 12345 (Down 2)

6. 123456789 (Unchanged)

7. football (Up 3)

8. 1234 (Down 1)

9. 1234567 (Up 2)

10. baseball (Down 2)

11. welcome (New)

12. 1234567890 (New)

13. abc123 (Up 1)

14. 111111 (Up 1)

15. 1qaz2wsx (New)

16. dragon (Down 7)

17. master (Up 2)

18. monkey (Down 6)

19. letmein (Down 6)

20. login (New)

21. princess (New)

22. qwertyuiop (New)

23. solo (New)

24. passw0rd (New)

25. starwars (New)

There are some interesting trends, if you can get beyond the sheer stupidity for a moment. Sports-based passwords are still popular, with “football” and “baseball” both ranking highly, and so are those inspired by a certain blockbuster film, with “starwars” and “solo” making an appearance.

It’s also nice to see the return of “princess,” which dropped out of the Top 25 last year but has made a resurgence, also potentially due to Star Wars. Elsewhere, other new entires—including “welcome,” “login” and “passw0rd”—are just as hackable but far more amusingly dumb.

Now is the point at which we should provide some advice about how to create a strong password. But here’s the best piece of advice we have: let’s all stop being such fucking idiots.

 
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These Secret Netflix Codes Can Reveal Tons of Hidden Categories

These Secret Netflix Codes Can Reveal Tons of Hidden Categories

Netflix

Netflix has tons of great content, but it can be hard to find it all if you don’t know what you’re looking for. The site’s algorithms show you what it thinks you want to watch, but these codes can help you venture outside the suggested depths.

Netflix fan site What’s On Netflix has a helpful list of codes that can reveal a multitude of narrow categories and category combinations that Netflix may not readily reveal to. To manually explore a category simple enter the following URL:

http://www.netflix.com/browse/genre/INSERTNUMBER

Then, replace INSERTNUMBER with one of the codes from the site below. What’s On Netflix has dozens of numbers for very specific categories, including everything from B-Horror Movies to Anime Fantasy. Check out the full list at the source link below.

The Netflix ID Bible – Every Category on Netflix | What’s On Netflix

 
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Microsoft will Inform You If Government is Spying on You

Following in the footsteps of Twitter, Facebook and Google, Microsoft promises to notify users of its e-mail (Outlook) and cloud storage (OneDrive) services if government hackers may have targeted their accounts.
The company already notifies users if an unauthorized person tries to access their Outlook or OneDrive accounts. But from now on, the company will also inform if it suspects government-sponsored hackers.

Ex-Employee: Microsoft Didn’t Notify When China Spied Tibetans Leaders

The move could be taken in the wake of the claims made by Microsoft’s former employees that several years ago Chinese government hacked into more than a thousand Hotmail email accounts of international leaders of Tibetan and Uighur minorities, but the company decided not to tell the victims, allowing the hackers to continue their campaign.
Instead of alerting those leaders of the hacking attempts, Microsoft simply recommended them to change their passwords without disclosing the reason, after an internal debate in 2011, Reuters reported.
However, Microsoft announced Wednesday that if the company strongly suspects that your account is being hijacked or targeted by hackers working in the interest of a nation-state, it will notify you via an email.
Here’s what Microsoft Vice President Scott Charney writes:

“We’re taking this additional step of specifically letting you know if we have evidence that the attacker may be ‘state-sponsored’ because it is likely that the attack could be more sophisticated or more sustained than attacks from cybercriminals and others. These notifications do not mean that Microsoft’s own systems have in any way been compromised.”

Just last week, Yahoo promised to alert its users whom it suspected were being spied on by state-sponsored hackers. Other big tech companies including Twitter, Facebook and Google, had previously assured their users that they would notify them of any potential government spying.
And now Microsoft is the latest company to join the list.

Government: We’ll Sue You if You Do That!

This is a good news for Microsoft users, but it seems that the United Kingdom is not happy with this decision by all the major tech firms, because the country seeks access to personal communications in order to fight terrorism and protect national security.
The UK government is pushing a new Investigatory Powers Bill that will take the bosses of any company that warns its users that security organizations, such as GCHQ (the Government Communications Headquarters), MI5 and MI6, are spying on them.
Specifically, UK ministers want to make it a criminal offence for Twitter, Google and other tech firms under which they could face up to two years in prison.

 

 
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Malicious malware detected in GTA V mods

Several Grand Theft Auto V for PC mods found to have viruses and malware

In the world of PC gaming, the Mods play a very important role in it. Mods take an original base of a game, and with some twists, you get carried to a totally different world. However, it looks though at least one person has decided to take advantage of the circumstances and include the malicious code within without the knowledge to those who download it.

The hugely popular No Clip and Angry Planes mods for Grand Theft Auto V are said to come with malicious code. This only emphasizes the importance of performing scans on the files you download with proper and updated anti-virus and anti-malware tools before you install them.

GTA Forum consisting of seven members carried out an investigation after realizing that Angry Planes had began to misbehave. It was found that an odd C# compiler program was running in the system processes, transmitting and receiving data across the web. A Fade.exe executable was found in his PC’s Temporary Files folder that kept a watch on his activity and changed his Windows registry to silently launch at system boot.

The other user who checked out the malware stated that he had used his PC to take part in a DDoS attack against a Twitch game streamer. Other modules that were found to be active inside the malware include a Facebook spam/credential stealing module, a Messenger.com spam/credential stealing module, a Twitch spam/credential stealing module, a Keylogger module, a Steam spamming module, and a UDP flooding module.

Malwarebytes, a Security firm that thorough examined the malicious files that were shared via the fraud has been identified by the security firm as Trojan-Agent-TRK – in a Malwarebytes blog post.

As told to EI Reg, Chris Boyd, a security researcher at Malwarebytes and an enthusiastic gamer stated that the flexible malicious ad-ons towards gamers is a fairly common action.

“Game mods have been a target for many years, with an older version of GTA coming under fire from a notorious GTA: Hoodlife fake mod containing malware back in 2007,” Boyd explained.

“Fans of the series traditionally enjoy extending the lifespan of the title through modding, so it’s a rich area of exploitation for malware authors. Rockstar could potentially increase mod safety by opening up the Steam workshop to mod downloads, but it seems that option isn’t available yet,” he said.

“If there is no push to host mods on Steam, then gamers will have to rely on third-party sites for downloads. It’s a lot easier for bad files to slip through on forums and fan-made websites than a service such as Steam with various checks and security features in place behind the scenes,” he added.

In case, you are using No Clip or Angry Planes with any mod or GTA V, it is advisable to carry out an anti-malware scan with one of the AV programs that identified the malicious file. It is also advisable to change your passwords to be more secure.

 
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What’s the Best File System for My Linux Install?

Linux File Systems

What’s the Best File System for My Linux Install?

File systems: they’re not the most exciting things in the world, but important nonetheless. In this article we’ll go over the popular choices for file systems on Linux – what they’re about, what they can do, and who they’re for.

file system ext4

If you’ve ever installed Linux before, chances are you’ve seen the “Ext4” during installation. There’s a good reason for that: it’s the file system of choice for just about every Linux distribution available right now. Sure, there are some that choose other options, but there’s no denying that Extended 4 is the file system of choice for almost all Linux users.

What can it do?

Extended 4 has all of the goodness that you’ve come to expect from past file system iterations (Ext2/Ext3) but with enhancements. There’s a lot to dig into, but here are the best parts of what Ext4 can do for you:

  • file system journaling
  • journal checksums
  • multi-block file allocation
  • backwards compatibility support for Extended 2 and 3
  • persistent pre-allocation of free space
  • improved file system checking (over previous versions)
  • and of course, support for larger files

Who is it for?

Extended 4 is for those looking for a super-stable foundation to build upon, or for those looking for something that just works. This file system won’t snapshot your system; it doesn’t even have the greatest SSD support, but If your needs aren’t too extravagant, you’ll get along with it just fine.

file systems btrFS

The B-tree file system (also known as butterFS) is a file system for Linux developed by Oracle. It’s a new file system and is in heavy development stages. The Linux community considers it unstable to use for some. The core principle of BtrFS is based around the principle of copy-on-write. Copy on write basically means that the system has one single copy of a bit of data before the data has been written. When the data has been written, a copy of it is made.

What can it do?

Besides supporting copy-on-write, BtrFS can do many other things – so many things, in fact, that it’d take forever to list everything. Here are the most notable features: The file system supports read-only snapshots, file cloning, subvolumes, transparent compression, offline file system check, in-place conversion from ext3 and 4 to Btrfs, online defragmentation, anew has support for RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5, RAID 6 and RAID 10.

Who is it for?

The developers of BtrFS have promised that this file system is the next-gen replacement for other file systems out there. That much is true, though it certainly is a work in progress. There are many killer features for advanced users and basic users alike (including great performance on SSDs). This file system is for those looking to get a little bit more out of their file system and who want to try the copy-on-write way of doing things.

file systems xfs

Developed and created by Silicon Graphics, XFS is a high-end file system that specializes in speed and performance. XFS does extremely well when it comes to parallel input and output because of its focus on performance. The XFS file system can handle massive amounts of data, so much in fact that some users of XFS have close to 300+ terabytes of data.

What can it do?

XFS is a well-tested data storage file system created for high performance operations. Its features include:

  • striped allocation of RAID arrays
  • file system journaling
  • variable block sizes
  • direct I/O
  • guaranteed-rate I/O
  • snapshots
  • online defragmentation
  • online resizing

Who is it for?

XFS is for those looking for a rock-solid file solution. The file system has been around since 1993 and has only gotten better and better with time. If you have a home server and you’re perplexed on where you should go with storage, consider XFS. A lot of the features the file system comes with (like snapshots) could aid in your file storage system. It’s not just for servers, though. If you’re a more advanced user and you’re interested in a lot of what was promised in BtrFS, check out XFS. It does a lot of the same stuff and doesn’t have stability issues.

file system riser4

Reiser4, the successor to ReiserFS, is a file system created and developed by Namesys. The creation of Reiser4 was backed by the Linspire project as well as DARPA. What makes Reiser4 special is its multitude of transaction models. There isn’t one single way data can be written; instead, there are many.

What can it do?

Reiser4 has the unique ability to use different transaction models. It can use the copy-on-write model (like BtrFS), write-anywhere, journaling, and the hybrid transaction model. It has a lot of improvements upon ReiserFS, including better file system journaling via wandering logs, better support for smaller files, and faster handling of directories. Reiser4 has a lot to offer. There are a lot more features to talk about, but suffice it to say it’s a huge improvement over ReiserFS with tons of added features.

Who is it for?

Resier4 is for those looking to stretch one file system across multiple use-cases. Maybe you want to set up one machine with copy-on-write, another with write-anywhere, and another with hybrid transaction, and you don’t want to use different types of file systems to accomplish this task. Reiser4 is perfect for this type of use-case.

There are many file systems available on Linux. Each serves a unique purpose for unique users looking to solve different problems.This post focuses on the most popular choices for the platform. There is no doubt there are other choices out there for other use-cases.

What’s your favorite file system to use on Linux? Tell us why below!

 
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